Monday, August 14, 2017

Pengertian Sistem Basis Data

Pengertian Sistem Basis Data

Pengertian basis data dan sistem basis data 


  • Basis Data adalah Sekumpulan data yang terintegrasi yang diorganisasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan para pemakai di dalam suatu organisasi. Basis data tersimpan di perangkat keras, serta dimanipulasi dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak. Pendefinisian basis data meliputi spesifikasi dari tipe data.
  • Database merupakan salah satu komponen yang penting dalam sistem informasi, karena merupakan basis dalam menyediakan informasi pada para pengguna atau user.
  • Sistem Basis Data adalah sistem yang terdiri dari koleksi data atau kumpulan data yang saling berhubungan dan program-program untuk mengakses data tersebut atau sistem basis data adalah DBMS + Basis Data.

Penjelasan Perbedaan Antara File Tradisional Dengan Sistem Basis Data



File Manajemen adisional
File manajemen Database
1. Program Oriented
             1      Data Oriented
2. Kaku
      2.   Luwes
3. Kerangkapan Data
      3.  Terkontrolnya kerangkapan Data









Kelemahan File Manajemen Tradisional  dan Kelemahan File Manajemen Basis data 

    Kelemahan File Manajemen Tradisional 

    • Timbulnya data rangkap & Ketidak konsistenan 
    • Data tidak dapat digunakan 
    • Data tidak dapat digunakan bersama 
    • Kesukaran dalam peng-aksesan data 
    • Tidak Fleksibel 
    • Data tidak standar

    Kelemahan File Manajemen Basis data 

    • Storage yang digunakan besar. 
    • Dibutuhkan tenaga spesialis 
    • Dibutuhkan tenaga spesialis 
    • Softwarenya mahal 
    • Kerusakan pada sistem database dapat mempengaruhi departeman lain yang terkait.

     Keuntungan Penggunaan Basis Data

    •  Control data terpusat
    •  Redundansi data dapat dikurangi dan dikontrol
    •  Ketidakkonsistensian data dapat dihindarkan
    •  Data dapat dipakai bersama (share)
    •  Penerapan standarisasi
    •  Pembatasan keamanan data (security)
    •  Integritas data dapat dipelihara
    •  Independensi data/program

    Kerugian Penggunaan Basis Data

    • Mahal, butuh biaya untuk software hardware dan user yang berkualitas
    • Kompleks, kemampuan hardware lebih besar, menjadi lebih rumit sehingga membutuhkan keahlian yang lebih tinggi.

    Sunday, May 14, 2017

    Tugas Softskill Bahasa Inggris Tugas Ke 4


    Tugas Softskill Bahasa Inggris Tugas Ke 4

    EXERCISE 40 : Inclusives.

    Supply the missing connectors (Not only ... but also ,both..and, or as well as) in the following sentences.

    Wednesday, May 10, 2017

    Tugas Softskill Bahasa Inggris Bisnis Tugas ke 3

    Tugas Softskill Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 Bulan 3

    Exercise 36 : Causative Verbs 

    Use the correct form of the verb in parentheses in each of the following sentences.

    1. The teacher made Juan leave the room.
    2. Toshiko had her car repaired by a mechanic.
    3. Ellen got Marvin to type her paper.
    4. I made Jane call her friend on the telephone.
    5. We got our house to painted last week.
    6. Dr. Byrd is having the students write a composition.
    7. The policeman made the suspect lie on the ground.
    8. Mark got his transcripts to sent to the university.
    9. Maria is getting her hair to cut tomorrow.
    10. We will have to get the Dean to sign this form.
    11. The teacher let Al leave the classroom.
    12. Maria got Ed to wash the pipettes.
    13. She always has her car fixed by the same mechanic.
    14. Gene got his book published by a subsidy publisher.
    15. We have to help Janet to find her keys.


      Exercise 37 : Relative Clauses

    Combine the following individual sentences into single sentences with relative clauses.

    1.  The last record which produced by this company became a gold record.
    2.  Checking accounts that require a minimum balance are very common now.
    3.  The professor whose you spoke yesterday is not here today.
    4.  John whose grades are the highest in the school, has received a scholarship.
    5.  Felipe bought a camera that has three lenses.
    6.  Frank are who were nominated for the office of treasurer. 
    7.  The doctor is with a patient whose leg was broken in an accident.
    8.  Jane is the woman Whose is going to China next year.
    9.  Janet wants a typewriter whose self-corrects.
    10.  This book that I found last week, contains some useful information.
    11.  Mr. Bryant whose team has lost the game, looks very sad.
    12.  James wrote an article whose indicated that he diskiled the president.
    13.  The director of the program whose graduated from Havard University, is planning to retire next year.
    14.  This is the book that I Have been looking for all year.
    15.  William whose brother is a lawyer, want to become a judge.

       Exercise 38 : Relative Clause Reduction

    Reduce the relative clauses in the following senteces

    1.  George is the man chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
    2.  All of the money accepted has already been released.
    3.  The papers on the table belong to Patricia.
    4.  The man brought to the police station confessed to the crime.
    5.  The girl drinking coffe, is Mary Allen.
    6.  John’s wife, a professor, has written several papers on this subject.
    7.  The man talking to the policeman, is my uncle.
    8.  The book on the top shelf, is the one that I need.
    9.  The number of students have been counted is quite high.
    10.  Leo Evans, a doctor, eats in this restaurant every day. 

      Exercise 39 : Subjunctive

    Correct the errors in the following sentences, if there are no errors, write correct

    1. The teacher demanded that the student leave the room
    2. It was urgent that he call her immediately
    3. It was very important that we delay discussion
    4. She intends to move that the committee suspends discussion on this issue
    5. The king decreed that the laws take effect the following month
    6. I propose that you should stop this rally
    7. I advise you to take the prerequisites before registering for this course
    8. His father prefers that he attends a different university
    9. The faculty stipulated that the rule be abolish
    10. She urged that we find another alternative

    Sunday, April 9, 2017

    Tugas softskill bahasa inggris bisnis tugas ke 2


     Tugas softskill bahasa inggris bisnis tugas ke 2 - afluxter.blogspot.com

    Excercise 26: Adjectives and Adverbs (107) Circle the correct form in parentheses.

    1. Rita plays the violin well.
    2. That is an intense novel.
    3. The sun is shining brightly.
    4.  The girls speak fluent French.
    5. 5. The boys speak Spanish fluently.
    6. 6. The table has a smooth surface.
    7. 7. We must figure our income tax returns accurately.
    8. 8. We don’t like to drink bitter tea.
    9. 9. The plane will arrive soon.
    10. 10. He had an accident because he was driving too fast
    ========================================= 
    Excercise 27: Linking (Copulative) Verbs (109)
     Circle the correct form in parentheses.

    1. Your cold sounds terrible. 
    2. The pianist plays very well. 
    3. The food in the restaurant always tasted good.
    4. The campers remained calm despite the thunderstrom.
    5. They became sick after eating the contaminated food.
    6. Professor Calandra looked quickly at the students sketches.
    7. Paco was working diligently on the project.
    8. Paul protested vehemently about the new proposals.
    9. Our neighbour appeared relaxed after their vacation.
    10. The music sounded too noisy to be classical.
    ========================================= 
     Excercise 28: Comparisons (Page 114) Supply the correct form of the adjectives and adverbs in parentheses. Let as and than be your clues. Add any other words that may be necessary.
     

    1.  John an his friends left as soon as the professor had finished his lecture.
    2.  His job is more important than his friend’s.
    3.  He plays the guitar as well as Andreas Segovia
    4.   A new house is much more expensive than an older one.
    5.   Last week was as hot as this week.
    6.   Martha is more talented than her cousin.
    7.   Bill’s descriptions are more colorful than this wife’s.
    8.   Nobody is happier than Maria Elena.
    9.   The boys felt worse than the girls about losing the game.
    10.   A greyhound runs faster than a Chihuahua.
    ========================================= 
    Excercise 29: Comparisons (Page 114) Supply than, as , or from in each of the following sentences
    The Empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty.

    1. California is farther from New York than Pennsylvania.
    2. Hi assignment is different from mine.
    3. Louie reads more quickly than his sisters.
    4. No animal is so big as King Kong.
    5. Than report is less impressive than the government’s.
    6. Sam wears the same shirt as his teammates.
    7. Dave paints much more realistically than his professor.
    8. The twins have less money at the end of the month than they have at the beginning.
    9. Her sports car is different from Nancy’s.
     ========================================= 

    Excercise 30: Comparisons (Page 117 - 118) Select the correct form in parentheses in the following sentences.

    1. Of the four dresses, i like the red one better.
    2. Phil is the happiest person we know.
    3. Pat’s car is faster than Dan’s.
    4. This is the creamiest ice cream i have had in long time.
    5. This poster is more colorful than the one in the hall.
    6. Does Fred feel better today than he did yesterday?
    7. This vegetable soup tastes very good.  
    8. While trying to balance the baskets on her head, the woman walk more awkwardly than her daughter.
    9. Jane is the least athletic of all the woman.
    10. My cat is the prettier of the two.
    11. This summary is the best of the pair.
    12. Your heritage is different from mine.
    13. This painting is less impressive than the one in the other gallery.
    14. The colder the weather gets, the sicker i feel.
    15. No sooner had he received the letter than he called Maria.
    16. A mink coat costs twice more than a sable coat.
    17. Jim has a few opportunities to play tennis as I.
    18. That recipe calls for much more sugar than mine does.
    19. The museum is the farthest away of the three buildings.
    20. George Washington is more famous than John Jay.
     ========================================= 

    Exercise 31: Nouns Functioning as Adjectives
    In each or the following sets, choose the appropriate form for the blank in the second sentence.
    1. Sam’s new apartement is in a building which has twelve stories.Sam’s new apartement is in a twelve stories building.
    2. We teach languages.We are language teachers.
    3. My parents saw a play in three acts last night.My parents saw a three acts last night.
    4. The manager said that the sale would last for two days.The manager said that it would be a last for two days sale.
    5. Hal bought a tool set containing 79 pieces. Hal bought a containing 79 pieces tool set.
    6. Margie has a bookcase with five shelvesMargie has a five shelves bookcase.
    7. I need two cans of tomatoes that weigh 16 ounces each. I need two weigh 16 ounces cans of tomatoes.
    8. I’m looking for a pressure cooker that holds six quarts. I’m looking for a holds six quarts pressure cooker.
    9. He is a specialist at building houses made of bricks. He is a specialist at building made of bricks houses.
    10. Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a bicyle with ten speeds.Mrs. Jansen just bought her daughter a ten speeds bicyle.
    =========================================
       Exercise 32: Enough
    In the following sentences, choose the correct form in parentheses.
    1. There were not enough people to have meeting.
    2. Allen has learned French enough to study in France next year.
    3. Do you have enough time to talk now?
    4. She drove fast enough to win the race.
    5. Mike will graduate from law school soon enough to join his father’s firm.
    6. We arrived early enough to have some coffee before class began.
    7. It has rained hard enough to flood the low lying areas.
    8. You should type slowly enough that you will not make an error.
    9. He has just enough flour to bake that loaf of bread.
    10. There are enough books for each student to have one.

    ========================================= 

    Excercise 33: Because/Because of in page 121
    Supply either because or because of as appropriate 
    1. It was difficult to deliver the letter Because Of the sender had written the wrong address on the envelope.
    2. We decided to leave early Because Of the party was boring
    3. Rescue attempts were temporarily halted Because Of the bad weather.
    4. They visited their friends often Because they enjoyed their company
    5. Paul cannot go to the football game Because his grades
    6. Marcella was awarded a scholarship Because her superior scholastic ability.
    7. Nobody ventured outdoors Because Of the hurricane warnings
    8. We plan to spend our vacation in the mountains Because Of the air is purer there
    9. We have to drive around the bay Because Of the bridge was destroyed in the strom.
    10. The chickens have died Because Of the intense heat.

    ========================================= 

    Excercise 34: So/Such in page 124
    Following the formulas, use either so or such in thes senntences as appropriate.
    1. The sun shone So brightly that Maria had to put on her sunglasses.
    2. Dean was Such a powerpul swimmer that he always won the races.
    3. There were So few students registered that the class was cancelled.
    4. We had So wonderful memories of that place that we decided to return.
    5. We had So good a time at the party that we hated to leave.
    6. The benefit was So great a success that the promoters decided to repeat it.
    7. It was Such a nice day that we decided to go to the beach.
    8. Jane looked So sick that the nurse told her to go home.
    9. Those were Such difficult assignments that we spent two weeks finishing them.
    10. Ray called at Such an early hour that we weren’t a wake yet.
    11. The book looked So interesting that he decided to read it.
    12. He worked So carefully that it took him a long time to complete the project.
    13. We stayed in the sun for Such a long time that we became sunburned.
    14. There were So many people on the bus that we decided to walk.
    15. The program was So entertaining that nobody wanted to miss it.

    Wednesday, March 1, 2017

    Tugas softskill bahasa inggris bisnis

    Tugas softskill bahasa inggris bisnis
    Tugas softskill bahasa inggris bisnis - afluxter.blogspot.com


    Exercise 21: Conditional Sentences (Page 97)
    Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses for each of the following sentences. Review the formulas if you have trouble.
    1. Henry talks to his dog as if it understood him.
    2. If they had left the house earlier, they wouldn’t be so late getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.
    3. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I will give it to my sister for her birthday.
    4. If I had seen the movie, I would tell you about it last night.
    5. Had bob not interfered in his sister’s marital problems, there would been peace between them
    6. He would give you the money if he had it.
    7. I wish they stopped making so much noise so that I could concentrate.
    8. She would call you immediately if she needed help.
    9. Had they arrived at the sale early, they would have found a better selection.
    10. We hope that you enjoyed the party last night.
    11. If you have enough time, please paint the chair before you leave.
    12. We could go for a drive if today were Saturday.
    13. If she wins the prize, it will be because she writes very well.
    14. Mike wished that the editors had permitted him to copy some of their material.
    15. Joel wishes that he had spent his vacation on the gulf coast next year.
    16. I will accept if they invite me to the party.
    17. If your mother buys that car for you, will you be happy?
    18. If he had decided earlier, he could have left on the afternoon flight.
    19. Had we known your address, we would have written you a letter.
    20. If the roofer doesn’t come soon, the rain will leak inside.
    21. Because rose did so poorly on the exam, she wishes that she had studied harder last night.
    22. My dog always wakes me up if he hears strange noises.
    23. If you see marry today, please ask her to call me.
    24. If he gets the raise, it will be because he does a good job.
    25. The teacher will not accept our work if we turn it in late.
    26. Mrs. Wood always talks to her tenth-grade student as though they were adults.
    27. If he had left already, he would have called us.
    28. If they had known him, they would have talked to him.
    29. He would understand it if you explained it to him more slowly.
    30. I could understand the French teacher if she spoke more slowly.


    ========================================
    Exercise 22: Used To (Page 99)
    Supply the simple form or (verb + ing) as required in the following sentences:
    1. I was used to eating (eat) at noon when I started school.
    2. He used to eat (eat) dinner at five o’clock.
    3. When I was young, I used to swim (swim) every day.
    4. He used to like (like) her, but he doesn’t anymore.
    5. Don’t worry. Some day you will get used to speaking (speak) English.
    6. Alvaro can’t get use to studying (study).
    7. He used to dance (dance) every night, but now he studies.
    8. Adam is used to sleeping (sleep) late on weekends.
    9. Chicko is used to eating (eat) American food now.
    10. She finally got used to eating (eat) our food.
    ========================================= 
    Exercise 23: Would Rather (Page 101 – 102)
    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in the following sentences.

    1. We would rather stay home tonight.
    2. Mr. Jones would rather had stayed home last night.
    3. The policeman would rather work on Saturday than on Sunday.
    4. Maria would rather that we studied more than we do.
    5. George would rather not study tonight.
    6. The photographer would rather have more light.
    7. The photographer would rather that we stand closer together than we are standing.
    8. Carmen would rather not cook for the entire family.
    9. She would rather that you not arrived last night.
    10. John would rather have slept than worked last night.


    ========================================= 
    Exercise 24 : Must / Should + Perfective (Page 105)
    Choose between must + perfective and should + perfeective in foolowing sentences.

    1. Henri was deported for having an expired visa. He must have his visa renewed.
    2. Juliette was absent for the first time yesterday, she should have been sick.
    3. The photos are black. The X rays at the airport should have damage them.
    4. Blanca got a parking ticket. She shouldn’t have parked in a reserved spot, since she had no permit.
    5. Carmencita did very well on the exam. She must have studied very hard.
    6. Jeanette did very badly on the exam. She must not have studied harder.
    7. German called us as soon as his wife had her baby. He should have been very proud.
    8. Eve had to pas $5.00 because she wrote a bad check. She must not have deposited her money before she wrote a check.
    9. John isn’t here yet. He must have forgotten about our meeting.
    10. Alexis failed the exam. He must not have studied enough.


    =========================================
    Exercise 25 : Modals + Perfective (Page 105-106)
    Choose the correct  answer in each of the following sentences according to meaning and tense.
     
    1. If I had a bicycle, I would ride it every day.
    2. George would have gone on trip to Chicago if he had had time.
    3. Marcela didn’t come to class yesterday. She may have had an accident.
    4. John didn’t do his homework. So the teacher became very angry. John should have done his homework.
    5. Sharon was supposed to be here at nine o’clock. She must have forgotten about our meeting.
    6. Where do you think Juan is today ? I have no idea. He may have slept late.
    7. George missed class today. He might have had an accident.
    8. Robert arrived without his book. He could have lost it.
    9. Thomas received a warning for speeding. He shouldn’t have driven so fast.
    10. Henry’s car stopped on the highway. It may have run out of gas. 
    ========================================= 
    Excercise 26: Adjectives and Adverbs (107)
    Circle the correct form in parentheses.
     
    1. Rita plays the violin well.
    2. That is an intense novel.
    3. The sun is shining brightly.
    4. The girls speak fluent French.
    5. The boys speak Spanish fluently.
    6. The table has a smooth surface.
    7. We must figure our income tax returns accurately.
    8. We don’t like to drink bitter tea.
    9. The plane will arrive soon.
    10. He had an accident because he was driving too fast


    ========================================= 
    Excercise 27: Linking (Copulative) Verbs (109)
     Circle the correct form in parentheses.

    1. Your cold sounds terrible.
    2. The pianist plays very well.
    3. The food in the restaurant always tasted good.
    4. The campers remained calm despite the thunderstrom.
    5. They became sick after eating the contaminated food.
    6. Professor Calandra looked quickly at the students sketches.
    7. Paco was working diligently on the project.
    8. Paul protested vehemently about the new proposals.
    9. Our neighbour appeared relaxed after their vacation.
    10. The music sounded too noisy to be classical.



    ========================================= 
     Excercise 28: Comparisons (Page 114)
    Supply the correct form of the adjectives and adverbs in parentheses. Let as and than be your clues. Add any other words that may be necessary.

     
    1. John an his friends left as soon as the professor had finished his lecture.
    2. His job is more important than his friend’s.
    3. He plays the guitar as well as Andreas Segovia
    4. A new house is much more expensive than an older one.
    5. Last week was as hot as this week.
    6. Martha is more talented than her cousin.
    7. Bill’s descriptions are more colorful than this wife’s.
    8. Nobody is happier than Maria Elena.
    9. The boys felt worse than the girls about losing the game.
    10. A greyhound runs faster than a Chihuahua.



    =========================================
    Excercise 29: Comparisons (Page 114)
    Supply than, as , or from in each of the following sentences

     
    1. The Empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty.
    2. California is farther from New York than Pennsylvania.
    3. Hi assignment is different from mine.
    4. Louie reads more quickly than his sisters.
    5. No animal is so big as King Kong.
    6. Than report is less impressive than the government’s.
    7. Sam wears the same shirt as his teammates.
    8. Dave paints much more realistically than his professor.
    9. The twins have less money at the end of the month than they have at the beginning.
    10. Her sports car is different from Nancy’s.



     ========================================= 

    Excercise 30: Comparisons (Page 117 - 118)
    Select the correct form in parentheses in the following sentences.

     
    1. Of the four dresses, i like the red one better.
    2. Phil is the happiest person we know.
    3. Pat’s car is faster than Dan’s.
    4. This is the creamiest ice cream i have had in long time.
    5. This poster is more colorful than the one in the hall.
    6. Does Fred feel better today than he did yesterday?
    7. This vegetable soup tastes very good.
    8. While trying to balance the baskets on her head, the woman walk more awkwardly than her daughter.
    9. Jane is the least athletic of all the woman.
    10. My cat is the prettier of the two.
    11. This summary is the best of the pair.
    12. Your heritage is different from mine.
    13. This painting is less impressive than the one in the other gallery.
    14. The colder the weather gets, the sicker i feel.
    15. No sooner had he received the letter than he called Maria.
    16. A mink coat costs twice more than a sable coat.
    17. Jim has a few opportunities to play tennis as I.
    18. That recipe calls for much more sugar than mine does.
    19. The museum is the farthest away of the three buildings.
    20. George Washington is more famous than John Jay.